Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Java Declaration Statement Definition

Java Declaration Statement Definition One kind of Java statement is a declaration statement, which is  used to declare a variable by specifying its data type and name. Below are some examples of declaration statements. A variable, in relation to Java programming, is a container that holds values used in a Java program. Instead of defining a value over and over, a variable that has a value attached to it can be defined. Since variables must be given an initial starting value, you can see how that works in the examples on this page. Examples of Declarations in Java The following three declaration statements declare int, boolean and String variables: int number; boolean isFinished; String welcomeMessage; In addition to the data type and name, a declaration statement can initialize the variable with a value: int number 10; boolean isFinished false; String welcomeMessage Hello!; Its also possible to declare more than one variable of the same data type in one declaration statement: int number, anotherNumber, yetAnotherNumber; boolean isFinished false, isAlmostFinished true; String welcomeMessage Hello!, farewellMessage; The variables number, anotherNumber, and yetAnotherNumber all have int data types. The two boolean variables isFinished and isAlmostFinished are declared with initial values of false and true respectively. Finally, the String variable welcomeMessage is assigned the String value of Hello!, while the variable farewellMessage is simply declared as a String. There are also control flow statements in Java as well as expression statements.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

No topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 49

No topic - Essay Example Refusing certain mutations we "play the role of God" to some extent. Another, essential from an ethical point of view, disadvantage lies in the fact that this type of diagnosis may be available only to people with high fortune. That means that poor people are unable to use these methods. Because this is unfair, it is necessary to develop state program that can provide an opportunity for low-income families to use this type of diagnosis. Finally, the worst thing in preimplantation diagnosis is that during selection of healthy embryos some of them can be killed. It is difficult bioethical issue. Concerning advantages of this diagnosis: firstly, and most important, in that way we can provide a high quality of life for our children and their parents. People should never forget that even given birth to a child with specific genetic disease, like Down syndrome, parents devote the child to suffer throughout all life. Second, we saturate our human population of healthy genes, which reduces the likelihood of recurrence of the disease. Second, we saturate our human population by healthy genes, which reduces probability recurrence of the disease. Overall, the use of genetics is becoming broader significance in our lives. This applies to medicine, agriculture and many other things around us. Heredity of certain physical properties, such as body type, composition of muscle fiber and type of sensorimotor reactions may affect the achievement in sport (Miah). The task of modern society is to prevent the parents to choose their children`s quality. This process should be natural and "playing God" it not possible from an ethical point of view. Thus, taken into consideration that progress cannot be stopped, we should pay more attention to bioethical

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Jewish space Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Jewish space - Essay Example It is important to highlight that this area of study has been explored by several scholars. In the literature review, there are several scholars who have taken their time in the conducting of research concerning this area of study. One of the scholars that have explored this area of study is Barbara E. Mann in his book; Space and Places in Jewish Studies, which was published in 2012, he describes the Jews in a hilarious way and he says that these people as those whose studies can easily be altered (Emily, 2007). In his book, he states it so vividly that the rate that the space is turning has the potential of mobilizing and sensitizing the world in a revolutionary manner. It is also important to highlight that Barbara in his second book â€Å"A place in history: Modernism, Tel Aviv and the creation of the Jewish Urban Space† again where he talks of the immigration of the Europeans. In this book, the author talks of how these people attempted to establish for themselves habitat. The book ha consequently tried to properly envisage this case in reference to the challenges and the difficulties that they underwent during this process (Emily, 2007). Another scholar who has also shown some concern over the space is a scholar by the name Cheryl Teelucksingh. This is another scholar who was very much concerned with the question of space. According to Cheryl in the work that was published in 2006, Claiming Space: Racialization in Canadian Cities - Page 60, the writer argues about space. And what is so clear in this case is that this space that is on debate here is relating to the Canadian cities and that this is for the Jewish. In this book, the well learned scholar argues that space that is in question or rather that is claimed as space by the Kehila center is not just acknowledged as space but rather engulfed by the larger and the vast Ashkenazi community or habitation (Emily, 2007). Anne Fuchs in her book that was

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Creative Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Creative Communication - Essay Example Creative writing, similar to art is subjective thus has different definitions. In the past, it has been called literature. Creative writing is considered imaginative and original. It is also work of fiction and mostly considered not to be true. It is an art of making or coming up with stories that are made-up. This writing does not have to be academic or official. However, this work has to be convincing, precise, attractive and entertaining in all ways possible. Some creative writing can be based on true stories or actual events as a source if inspiration. One of the factors that define creative writing is how captivating a story is. Personal involvement of the writer with his work is a common element, and events are not ‘objective’ as is common with news articles or factual writing. It is easy to read a poem and classify it as creative yet read through a legal document and identify it as factual writing. Types of creative writing include plays (live or recorded), poetry, films and scripts, novels and short stories that are fictional, songs and narratives, speeches, memoirs, personal compositions and also screenwriting. There are several theories about creative writing. The most deployed theory is that of composition writing that allows the transmission of ideas that are later shared through conferences, talks, and inter-class discussions. Understanding this theory gives writers a context in their work. Creative writers write about craft in ways that are quite accessible to readers thus are able to pass on the knowledge and the imaginative sense of other generations. This leads to improving skills and empowering others to heighten their levels of imagination. Composition theory enhances invention, designing, problem-solving arts and also entrepreneurial initiatives. It consists of six processes. In creative writing, these processes should not follow any order although should be experienced several times. These are

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Marketing Strategies Used In Film Industry Bollywood Media Essay

Marketing Strategies Used In Film Industry Bollywood Media Essay Patiala House releases in Patiala, ironically the film has nothing to do with the princely state, Katrina Kaif in Lucknow studio of radio mirchi for Rajneetis Promotion, Silence is the promotion strategy for My Name is Khan a much talked film This paper investigates widespread marketing strategies used in Film industry popularly called the Bollywood both nationally and internationally. Film marketing is rapidly developing into a promising industry although the idea is its incipient stage in India. We have seen over the years that success of film now not only through its contents but varied integration of marketing strategies to promote the film. Today everyone in the film bazaar wants success but it is acquired by only those who have come out with some out of box strategy for their film. Films are much hyped before their release in the market so that they have great openings but some are bombed in few weeks and some are not even noticed due to lack of content. Films now are more than just an entertainment, but are a business. Marketing of a movie is not a new initiative it has its existence since films were introduced in India, but it is followed more rigorously in todays state of film affairs. The inception of this paper starts with introduction of the film industry followed with the strategies used to market the movies in the industry. This is also an interest area of the author, as being a movie buff. The other segment research will highlight the growth of this budding industry. The content of this paper also comprises with current inclination and variation that are common in the film industry. The methodology used in this paper has a literature review which will be the basis of the report. Due to non-availability of required data relating to the expenses on conventional and non-conventional media, the author has chose a case study approach. To indentify the consumption pattern of the consumer a research is conducted both with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The dissertation is ended with the inclusion of integrated marketing framework for Bollywood and the new means that for existing medium, those are being or could be deployed in the area of film marketing. Methodology: Before getting into details of film marketing the author highlights the area of conventional and non-conventional media and tactics to manipulate the viewers decision. Conventional media majorly includes Trailers and Commercials on Television, Posters, Radio promotion and Printed Ads etc. whereas, unconventional media comprises of SMS/MMS, Internet Broadband, BTL activities and events and social networking etc. In terms of number of movies produced India has the biggest movie industry. Around 800 movies are made and released of which 90% are bombed beyond the week at the box-office. (Indiaonestop, 2010) We can every day, every few hours, somebody, somewhere is launching a feature film in this country. (Bose, 2006) So its important for a film marketer to know which method or media would be appropriate for that particular film. While delineating conventional tactics for marketing films to the unconventional ones a clear example would be advertisement in theatre which is a conventional way but using technology or innovative techniques to market it qualifies to be an unconventional way of marketing. Taking in to consideration the number of flops annually the Bollywood gives, it is mandatory to understand the spending done on these mediums for promotion as it would give an insight to a new method which will be helpful for our dissertation. Film makers generally dont take into consideration what audiences want a few can be named as Ram Gopal Verma, Mani Ratnam etc. whose films like RGV ki Aag, Rakta Charitra and Raavan flopped in spite of having strong star cast. So in order to gauge consumer consumption pattern in terms of movie content, effects of promotional activities, change in the decision to watch a movie etc. (Chand, 2011) These factors will help in defining the timing of the movie to launched, content of the movie, Star cast, Publicity, unfriendly press and partner brands. Producers often forget the importance of the above factors in a hurry to give a clone of previous hits. All the film makers try to play safe, recover costs and try to move on and thus leave the impression to the general public that our film makers have run out of ideas. (Bose, 2006) Film makers these days are like businessman, they spread their losses by investing in several films simultaneously in the anticipation that at if one will work he can take care of the losses with it. A film-maker who has the resources and the ability to work and gamble on multiple projects is never let down by the law of probability. Mode of Study/Tools Used: A two pronged approach adopted in this report will help to understand all of the above and find a satisfactory answer for it. A secondary research will be conducted on the available data. A whole research framework will be gathered related to film marketing. This would not meet ones expectation entirely so we need a primary survey including both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Quantitative research would be done with the help of questionnaires targeting the urban crowds from the metros excluding the southern cities of India. Overseas city like Leicester and Wembley which has a number of Indian communities is also taken under the survey which will give a more holistic research. Approximately a sample of 50 respondents were targeted, though the number is too short for large topic like this; hence a figure ranging to 20,000 at a confidence level of 95% and percentage of 50% the confidence interval comes out to be approximately +/-3.5% which should be acceptable. Internet has been used as a medium to collect data from the respondents along with collecting data personally from the above mentioned localities in Wembley and Leicester. This medium saved cost and time. However response for the survey was not mandatory and it was completely at respondents discretion. The idea behind the selection of the metros for primary research is due to the beginning of the multiplex culture in these cities. Usual movie goers were targeted that includes families, teens, couples etc. The data obtained from this survey will be evaluated using factor analysis. This data will help us to understand the trend, interest of the consumers towards the unconventional media used to promote the films. As part of the research a case study of movie will be taken which was well marketed but bombed at the box office. This will give an actual scenario of the topic. Anticipated Output from the Research: Few questions would come up along with this dissertation: Whom should the producer communicate to? What appeals to whom? Which media reaches the most? What do the consumers want? Limitations of the Survey: This sample does not represent the entire India due to the limitation of the survey conducted in the taken geography. The area was chosen mostly as the region bestows majorly to the Hindi speaking population of the country. Another limitation is number of the respondents would be contacted through emails or social networking sites which leads to a possibility of fake response, half response or also data duplication. Review of Literature Overview: Hollywood has been dominant over the years in the international film industry but slowly Mumbai and Shanghai are emerging beyond providing the local language films and television into domestic and international markets. Los Angeles remains the largest cluster in the world with Mumbai following second in the lead. (PWC, 2010) Mumbai and Shanghais cluster increases between 2010 and 2040 while that of Los Angeles cluster decreases in size. This is because of shift of consumers towards alternative media options like video games and internet. (PWC, 2010) Indian and Chinese governments have realized the potential of the industry and so they are encouraging these industries to grow. However it is difficult to imagine a mainstream film audience opting for Chinese movies instead of Hollywood movies. In future this may change. In recent years Hollywood and Bollywood have realized the importance of regional cinema and so there is an increasing trend of dubbing popular movies of both the industry. E.g. Gurinder Chadhas latest film Its a Wonderful Afterlife was dubbed in Hindi and Punjabi. (PWC, 2010) As stated earlier the subject of this dissertation is to understand the Indian Film Industrys marketing strategies and its competitors. The aim of the literature review is to understand the method used for film marketing using conventional and nonconventional medium. Indian film marketing is in its incipient stage there is dearth of literature work. There are few reports and articles here and there which shed light on this subject. The literature review on the subject I found relevant to my research is as follows: Unraveling the potential: The Indian Entertainment and Media Industry, FICCI Frames, March 2006, by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) The report is published by FICCI and it looks as Entertainment and Media Industry as a whole but not only the film industry. However the overall percepts provided gives some important information for my research. Table 1: IRS 2005, Round 2 as quoted in Jagran Prakashan Prospectus filed with SEBI dated Feb 3, 2006 Urban India Films Reach in % age Reach in millions A1 30.6 2.43 A2 25.1 3.85 B1, B2 19.1 7.53 C 18.1 8.59 D 17.1 9.52 E1, E2 15.7 10.59 Source: Televisionpoint, Research, Media Industry, 2005 The above table shows how much penetration films have in the socio economic classes. It helps to target market segmentation and marketing campaigns according to the socio-economic classes and the reach of the medium. However the report shows the share of the film industry in the Indian economy which is not changing from 2005- 2010 as the share of film industry was 19 % in 2005 but has not increased in 2010. (FICCI, 2006) The report points out that film industry is among few growth drivers for the EM industry. Quoting directly from the report: Indians love to watch movies. And advancements in technology are helping the Indian film industry in all the spheres film production, film exhibition and marketing. The industry is increasingly getting more corporatized. Several film production, distribution and exhibition companies are coming out with public issues. More theatres across the country are getting upgraded to multiplexes and initiatives to set up more digital cinema halls in the country are already underway. This will not only improve the quality of prints and thereby make film viewing a more pleasurable experience, but also reduce piracy of prints. (FICCI, 2006) Faults Found Indian Film Industry is full of uncertainty and is unorganized. The outcome is bollywood has only 1% of share in the world film industry while at the same time US has 60% of the world revenue. (PWC FICCI, 2007) Table 2 Filmed entertainment revenues by country/region, US$ million, 2009 Country/region Revenue in US$ million Percentage of total USA 34,431 40.4 Japan 11,061 13.0 UK 5,599 6.6 Other Western Europe 5,151 6.1 France 3,763 4.4 Germany 3,646 4.3 Canada 3,330 3.9 Other Asia Pacific 2,681 3.1 Australia 2,562 3.0 Latin America 2,431 2.9 Italy 2,087 2.5 Central and Eastern Europe 1,982 2.3 India 1,899 2.2 Spain 1,688 2.0 South Korea 1,275 1.5 China 1,206 1.4 Middle East and Africa 345 0.4 Total 85,137 100.0 Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2010-2014, June 2010 The above report shows the world film market is still dominated by the developed economies. (UK Film Council, 2010) In spite of Indian Film Industry having larger admissions ratio and population it still lags behind to Australia and Italy in terms of world market share. Films are today more than Art, its business. This showbiz business is the biggest money earner in the country. In last couple of years film industry has changed itself into fully professional business industry with innovative methods to promote a film. Time has changed and so are the promotional and marketing activities of a film. Awareness of film and its Star Cast is important in the competitive industry. (Merinews, 2010) Almost two to three movies releasing every Friday, to succeed the producer or directors have to something different to attract the audiences. Its all about creating brand identity. For e.g. during the release of 3 Idiots Amir Khan toured seven cities across India to connect to people and create an attention towards the movie. This proved to be very successful strategy and the movie broke all box office records. Today the actors have also understood the importance of marketing of a film. The author has found few gaps in the Indian Film Industry. Digital Movies Development in the digital technology will lead the industry in future. Digital movie assures to raise box office collections by increasing picture resolution, quality of the print and lower distribution costs. There are mixed reaction on the issue of piracy. Initiatives by producers like Bharat Shah and Manmohan Shetty have started initiative to increase digital cinemas. (Bose, 2006) Audiences distinguishing the promotions to be fake All promotion techniques like Coffee with the stars, Invitation to the premiere etc does not attract the audiences as they dont trust the promotional event. They simply think that at given sample of 10000 only 2-3 fans get a chance to meet the stars or invitation. Audiences do notice such events but percentage of participation is very low. Thus by using conventional medium to connect to people a major chunk of the pie rests untouched by the film makers. (Chand, 2011) BTL activities and its effects on films Below the line activities do engage the audiences with the campaign but at the end they fail to attract the audiences at the ticket booths and do not increase the ticket sales. A good here is of the film Aagey Se Right The campaign Win a Gun was woven with the story line of the film where the actor loses his gun in the film. It was launched online where the users could take home a gun by answering a simple question and the help the cop Waghmare, find his lost gun as well. The actor also visited seven cities of India and checked visitors purses and bags as a part of campaign. In spite of the innovativeness and spending on the campaign the film did not earn money to the producers. (Nautiyal, 2009) Competition from International Movies The international market is expected to grow at the pace of 18% annually with estimation at Rs. 7 billion but bollywood shares only 10% of its box office revenues in the international market. (PWC FICCI, 2007) There is a significant gap in the urban and rural demand due to growing middle class. The urban audiences demand Masala + Movies which cannot be met due to shortage of talent. Hence this demand gap is filled by international movies. Hollywood is gaining a reasonable market share with the help of better marketing techniques. Their target audiences are young Indians which amount 50% of the population. (Kukenshoner et al 2008) Surmises The above holes found in the working of Indian film industry surmises to the statement that: Traditional marketing strategies are vieux jeu, and more and more innovative techniques are used to attract the audiences for the Friday. Bollywood and the World Film Industry:Â   With the rise of new mediums and change in economic scenario of India more attention is diverted towards bollywood at the same time other film cultures attempting to Bucolize Hollywood. (Desai Dudrah, 2008) Bollywood prides itself with being one of the largest film industries in the world in terms of producing the films. Some around 1090 films compared to 607 in the year 2006. (Jones et al, 2008) The current dominance of Hollywood is largely due to advancements in marketing techniques, innovative, good content and an effective distribution channel. In terms of commercial success Hollywood dominated the world market but other countries were still making culturally important movies. (Jones et al, 2008) France and UK were major competitors of Hollywood. Modern Motion Picture was invented in France. It loses its leading position against Hollywood with the invention of sound in the film. The demand decreased due to the less French speaking people over the globe. Since the creation of television and film, Britain has been thriving due the film as it is a key part and driver of the mix of creative industries. (House of Commons, 2003) The industry experienced a constant brain drain to the Hollywood. (Jones et al, 2008) Chinese film industry although compared to India is small but is very organized. One area bollywood has to work on if want to be successful in the world market is the length of the film. Even the best film has 20-30 minutes more length. If bollywood wants to succeed in the global market the industry will have to invest lot in marketing and distribution of the film. (Pillania, 2008) Nollywood a dark horse of Africa is the new word in the world market at least in India. The world was minted by their inspiring counterparts namely Hollywood and Bollywood. It is one of the fastest and largest growing industries with over 872 films in 2006 (UNESCO, 2006) The African market is dominated by Nollywood. Compared to Hollywood, Bollywood and other film industries the film making style is cost effective as it uses digital cameras instead of film and movies are made in mere a weeks time with the less than 15000 USD. Movies are released directly through DVDs or CDs rather than in Theatres. It does affect the quality of the film; making it difficult to export overseas. Few western directed documentaries have spread some knowledge of Nollywood in the West. A part of the industry is working to improve the current scenario. (Mazzocco, 2011) Tollywood is the combination of wood from Hollywood and Tolly from Telugu language also known as cinema of Andhra Pradesh. In 2008 278 movies were released. Hyderabad is the center of all the work done and studios of Tollywood. (Vikram, 2010) The South Indian film industries produce half of the total number of movies of India. Breakdown of films in different languages of India is shown below: Languages No. of Films Hindi 222 Tamil 151 Telugu 155 Kannada 109 Malayalam 64 Marathi 25 Bengali 49 Assamese 17 English 23 Others 877 (Source: Central Board of Film Certification, 2003) Bollywood has over the years created an synthetic culture that appeals to a specific audience in India while regional cinemas are still rooted to their culture and language. Few regional films have been so popular that they had bypassed Bollywood films at the box office by selling more tickets in their respective states. E.g. A Tamil Super Star Rajikanths Film named Shivaji broke all records of Tamil film industry and at the same time breaking Indias Box office records. Even though the film was played on only 12 screens it was the first non-Bollywood Indian film to make it to UK Top Ten. Bollywood is mistaken as Indian Cinema by many non-Indian commentators and also by some Indians but the fact is something different. The challenge to bollywood is not only from overseas but also from the regional movies. (Stafford, 2008) The Integrated Marketing Framework Understanding Film Marketing Publicity: The strategic importance of publicity of any film is undoubted. It is oxygen for everybody who is connected in the film industry. It keeps you in the attention and guarantees the longevity of your career. An important role is played by both media and non-media public relations. Although here Bollywood lacks good publicist like they have in Hollywood. Publicist have failed to keep with pace of growth by the industry in past years. Publicist are increasingly becoming a necessity as the number of publication seeking coverage are increasing along with the technology which is expand bollywood beyond the borders. (Parimal et al 2009) Public always has an craving for gossips about domestic crisis, romantic linkages with a star or a sensational filmi story. So it always makes a sense for a film-maker to give media some masala news about the plot of the film, release of the music, clarification on controversies, celebration parties or location of the shoots. Film awards also boost chances of the actor/actress to get new films. For e.g. Producer Bimal Roys movie named Bandini was released in 1966. The film was running according to the course and was about to be take off the theatres, when suddenly the movie was nominated for Film fare awards and Presidents Silver Medal. It a new lease of life to the movie and the movie was a hit miraculously. (Bose, 2006) If a movie successfully touches the public emotion it is bound to be a hit. This happened with movies like Gadar and Laagan. These films touched the patriotic sentiment of the common man so got mouth to mouth publicity and enjoyed greater success after the first week of release. It is said that people from villages with trucks full went to the cities to watch these movies. Especially, Gadar. Quality of movie along with good music played an important role in success of these movies. (Pandey, 2010) Partner Brands: Over the years bollywood have successfully partnered with brands like Tag Huer, Rolex, McDonalds, Maybelline, Exide battery, Coca Cola, Pepsi, Hutch, Bournvita, Zandu, Ultratech cement, Nikon and so on. For e.g. In the movie Taare Zameen Par, In the drawing competition the participants were shown using colors of Fevicryl. The same color prints were gifted by the elder brother of the main character Darsheel Safari. (S Roy et al, 2009) Few e.g. of the brands partnering with the films are as under: Film Name Brand Name Om Shanti Om Mukta Arts-Production House, HMV, Exide Battery, Filmfare Awards, Tag Heur Watch, Maybelline Chak de India EXIM Bank, Australian Trade and Commerce, Aaj Tak, McDonalds, Britannia Marie, ESPN, Puma Partner Coco Cola, Marie Claire, Zoom (Media Partner), Pepsi, Pizza Hut, Toyota, ESPN, Boost, Hutch, Sony Vaio, Phuket (Tourism), Starbucks, Mercedes, Kawasaki (Water Boat), Nokia 6600, BPL, DFL, Bournvita, Sony Erickson Mobile, Go air, Nikon, Calvin Klein Namaste London Spykar Jeans, Western Union Money Transfer, Streax, MTV, Kingfisher, Bharatmatrimony.com, Indiatimes.com, HP (laptop), Bailey (Packaged Water), Ford (Tractor), Sony Camcorder Source: (Product Placement in Bollywood Movies, pp 56) Content of the movie: Most modern films that are high in style and locations but low in content fail to click at the box office. The movie-goer however motivated is no fool and can see through the content of the movie within the first 15 minutes of the movie. Honesty is the best policy. Honesty to the medium and honesty to the audiences does pay off. Audiences always prefer innovativeness in the content. Five Film on the freedom fighter Bhagat Singh was made in 2001 simultaneously, but only the one with protagonist Ajay Devgan in the lead role was a hit at box office mainly because of its narrative style. There are many such instances in bollywood where narrative styles of the movie have won producers accolades. (Bose, 2006) Star Cast: Making a film is all about team work. It consists of actors, crew members, technicians and artistes who contribute their skills and reputation to create a brand value for the film. These people used to be employees of the production houses hired on monthly fixed salary in late 50s. Time passed and so changed the working of bollywood film industry. With the wipeout of the studio system freelancing became the norm of the industry where stars soon began to call the shots. Their association with the production team and banner determined their success and reputation in the industry. Today the focus shifting towards the stars, camps have come up where Shah Rukh Khan belongs to the Karan Johar Camp. Actresses like Urmila and Antara Mali belongs to Ram Gopal Verma camp etc. They may be lucky talismans or loyalists to their respective camps but together they constitute a winning team that every distributor would like to bet on. The star system of bollywood signifies their value by their impac t on the industry. Lorenzen and Taube (2008) stress that inclusion of stars in the movie play a major role in the success of the typical film of the bollywood at the same time acknowledging that mere inclusion does not guarantee the success of the film at box office. The second largest movie industry of India is Tollywood which also has the same star system. At international level Nollywood the movie industy of Nigeria also has the same star system where the power is hold by the marketers and distributors. In contrast to most European film industries, Nigerian film industry is run on very industrial terms. (Kerrigan, 2010) Timing of the movie to be launched: As such there is no rule that films have to be released on Friday but the general reason behind is Friday is the last day working day giving the audiences to spend rest two days in recreational activities. Watching a movie is one of them. Another reason for timing a movie release is people dont come to theatres if there are exams or festivals or world cup event. Given an example is the current release of the movie Yeh Faasle. The current hysteria of World Cup and Board examinations the film is not having audiences in spite of strong star cast. (Pattni, 2011) Planning Campaign of Film Marketing: Film marketing is nothing but how the filmmakers and marketers position their film in the mind of the audiences in order to increase the consumption of their film. (Kerrigan, 2010) A marketing process must address few factors like PEST, cultural and competition to fit in the market place. The timing of this process is very important; filmmakers have realized its importance. Film marketing is done at three stages namely corporate branding, promotions events and traders and distributors.(Chand, 2011) Planning for a Movie: Film marketing starts at the moment the idea of particular film making is conceived. The target audience is also decided for whom the movie is made for. So effective planning is needed to contain all the section you need to address. More than 50% of all movie theatre tickets are bought by 9% of the population. The films first two weeks does the business of around 78% in the given market place. (Smith, 2011) The two key factors of your film planning are Positioning and Target Market: Positioning: Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in the market (Tutor2u, 2011) The whole marketing and communication strategy of the film is depended on the positioning of the film. The film positions itself in the mind of the audience through positioning. A target audience is to be pin-pointed by the marketers to appeal them through positioning elements (Kalra, 2002) For e.g. In Dharmendras Barsaat the film was intended to be the refreshing love story with two new star faces. But no key elements were expressed convincingly in the film. Two star faces were created in the industry but the film didnt do well in the box office. (Chand, 2011) Targeting: Every movie differs from other and so is the genre of the movie. The film cant be a hit unless the film maker knows it target audience. It is important for the film maker to know what the target audience want, what they have rejected in past and their habits. Target audience is defined by age, class, gender etc while elements like movie goers, race, socio-economic status, urban and rural audience are additional. Targeting can be done on the basis of: Age Gender Education Religion Ethnicity Nationality Geography Medium of Marketing: Be interesting, or be invisible. Andy Sernovitz There are so many options for marketing that marketers are confused over it. There are many boulevards for marketing in India. Many marketing tools are used for single film in the industry. Lets look at the most used platforms to attract audiences at the theatres. In the past the marketing campaigns were usually done by billboards designed to fit in magazines, newspapers ads, integrated into television ads and the same in theater trailers. Over the years the style of bollywood has changed so is its campaigning style the conventional marketing through billboards, print ads, TV ads and trailers have changed their approach. In todays scenario film campaigning is more targeted at various online demographics that suits the audiences demands and is more specific. (Miller, 2011) Gupta and Gould (1997) stated product placement as incorporating brands in films in return of money. Regional movies are also at par with Bollywood in product placements. E.g. A Telugu movie named Jalsa had a Coca-C ola brand incorporated in it. (Roy Bhattacharya, 2009) Print Advertisements: In contemporary India advertisements play many roles. Print advertisement are the most used and old techniques to reach the audiences. Full page ads and half page ads in a newspaper like Times of India, Dainik Bhaskar etc were regular norms till date. These ads are now shifting towards internet which has photographs usually taken during the shoots. To make the ad more effective and increase its credibility quotes from critics are added to the advertisements. (Chand, 2011) The Indian print industry is expected to grow at 7.4% over the period of 2009-14 and an estimated of Rs. 230.5 billion in 2014 from the current estimate of Rs. 161.5 billion in 2009. (PWC, 2010) Television Appearances: It was started just as an experiment by Yash Raj but this idea seems to be accepted by all in the industry to promote their respective films. Currently this medium is taken by film makers very seriously. Before it was reality shows on TV and now it is serials. Bollywood has found their new mantra to publicize their upcoming movies. Both big and small TV stars benefit from this new arrangement as this is the be

Friday, October 25, 2019

Mathematical Ethics Essay -- Math Philosophy Aristotle Papers

Mathematical Ethics Philosophers since antiquity have argued the merits of mathematics as a normative aid in ethical decision-making and of the mathematization of ethics a theoretical discipline. Recently, Anagnostopoulos, Annas, Broadie and Hutchinson have probed such issues said to be of interest to Aristotle. Despite their studies, the sense in which Aristotle either opposed or proposed a mathematical ethics in subject-matter and method remains unclear. This paper attempts to clarify the matter. It shows Aristotle’s matrix of exactness and inexactness for ethical subject-matter and ethical method in the Nicomachean Ethics. Then it probes a resultant puzzle from the matrix, namely, the HL model of the happy life without consideration of mathematical justice (Bk. III) and the HJL model of the happy life with such consideration (Bk. V). Finally, it examines Aristotle’s twofold rationale for differentiating these two models in his overall moral feedback loop system: differences in the intel lectual virtue of good deliberation; the priority of friendship over justice for the happy life. This suggests Aristotle saw no objection either to using mathematics as an aid to ethical decision-making for a happy life, or to mathematizing at least some parts of an ethical theory of eudaimonism. I. The problem of math ethics in modernity and antiquity Mathematizing ethics to become scientific ethics has long been a dream of some philosophers, dating to both the Academy and perhaps the Lyceum. In modern philosophy Jeremy Bentham, (1) G.E. Moore, (2) and Nicholas Rescher (3) have tried to mathematize ethics. Such mathematizations square with Quine's view that mathematizing inexact things by way of exact methods marks a successful reduc... ...participants. It misses the mark methodologically, or, as Broadie likens it, it is "playing at ethics" or even a "perversion." It is, as Aristotle sees in the Nicomachean Ethics, a deception, since the underlying longitudinal assumption is that someone thinks they can become good by talking about the good without doing good and without being impacted by doing what they have chosen in a moral feedback loop system. (1105b 13-17) Furthermore, such maturation theories overlook the iterative dimension of moral decision-making with feedback loops and filters in the development of moral character — including the possible use of mathematical ethics in the manner of Aristotle, who seems to have steered a middle course between complete reductive mathematization of ethics and an apriori resistance to even a partial mathematization of ethics. "Not too much and not too little!"

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Islamism: Origin, Ideology, Aims & Objectives

Nations around the world follows different ideologies to generate a direction for themselves. An ideology is a way of thinking, a set of beliefs, aims and ideas. It sets the vision for the group attached to it. Its purpose is to bring a specific change or carry out a certain task among its followers in accordance with a thorough thought process. When ideologies differ it gets difficult for the people belonging to a certain group to stay coherent. Ideological differences have triggered such events that were found to be powerful enough that they have shrugged the atlas several times. Wars had been fought by those who reject leading their life in the ways that conflicts with their own ideological beliefs. Islamic Ideology Islam is a religion of having faith in the oneness of God, finality of Prophet-hood, following the code of conduct according to the principles mentioned in the Holy Book and practicing the preaching of Holy Prophet. Islam emphasizes on building individual characters in an exemplary way so that a foundation of an ideal society could be laid. All Muslims have been ordered by their God Almighty to follow instructions prescribed in their Holy Book Quran, the purpose of this guidance is to lay down a way of life in which the laws mentioned in the book regulates a men’s relationship with other men and with his God. It provides a guideline for a man to maintain his social life along with his communion with the God. It indicates to a Muslim in his quest for knowledge, principle that enhances his capability to observe universe and nature with more understanding. Quran is not a book of science; it’s basically a book that deals with the basic principles of human life it preaches belief in oneness, immateriality, absolute power of the creator, charity for needy, brotherhood among mankind, subjugation of passions, the concept of accountability of human actions in the life after death, a system that teaches men to be grateful to all those who help and development of a sense of social consciousness by carefully performing those actions that are sensible and right and avoiding those that are forbidden and harmful for self and others. Islamism Islam provides Muslims a code of conduct that has been written in the Holy Book. Muslims are supposed to understand and follow it and when it comes to understanding there are different possible interpretations of the same text. Islamism is not a single concept rather it’s a product of different ideologies that exists within the umbrella of Islam. Islam is a religion that provides guideline for the Muslims around the world. Islamism has ideological conflicts. In general all these ideological groups call them Islamists, a group of people that completely rejects accepting secular governments and institutions and aim to align the entire world and its establishments in accordance to Sharia, the Muslim Law. One single society could have several directions of Islamism contributing to the fact that it’s been initiated by different groups trying to enforce their own ideologies and they seemed to never cooperate. Islamism expects its followers to align his life in complete adherence to the sacred law of Islam and completely rejects any foreign influences that may try to force any law or code of conduct that contradicts what is being mentioned in Islamic law. Islamism has in its root anger for non-Muslims and it condemn west to greatest extent. What it aims is to convert a religion into a kind of ideology. Origin of Islamism A little more than just 200 years before Muslim world was considered the hub of science and literature. Muslim scholars have laid such foundations that were later used by European researches to build extremely beneficial artifacts that have amazed the world. During the prime era of Muslims, there were mathematicians, doctors, scientists, philosophers, researchers and artists that people from around the globe used to come and learn from them. The theories presented by Muslim scholars are the basis of most of the modern scientific inventions and innovations. The downfall arose when the Muslim world interacted with the Europeans; its dated around 200 years back in 1798 when Napoleon landed in Egypt and the Muslim worlds came in contact with the Europe. From here came the influence and impact of European culture and civilization on the Muslims. The two nations are not incompatible but the ideological differences became evident when conflicts triggered events that lead to development of anger and hostile feelings among contradicting nations. According to Daniel Pipes: This confrontation was clearly shown in the aftermath of the fatwa by Ayatollah Khomeini against Salman Rushdie. Contrary to popular expectation, the lines in 1989 were drawn not between Muslim and Westerners, but between those who supported the ayatollah, or in some fashion sympathized with him, and those who were against him. One found many Muslims and Westerners on both sides. This illustrates how it is ideas that count, not religion. (Distinguishing between Islam & Islamism, 1998) The origination of Islamism is neither a single event nor responsibility of a particular person. It is the fundamentalist Islamic approach carried forward by those Islamic radicals that completely rejects the western culture and way of thinking. Series of events in history builds such anger among the Muslims that were once the most successful nation on the map of earth that they started to rebel and participate in destructive activities so that world could again come in their control, this time if not by education or technology then by force and devastation. Aims and Objectives There can’t by another explanation of Islamism but just that it’s like the other utopian schemes that have been proposed and adopted world wide and provides its followers ways and guidelines to control a state, take measures that help running a society and extend philosophies in order to re-make human beings inhabiting that state. The concept has been given an Islamic touch but over all it’s a totalitarian scheme. It embodied a complete transformation of the actual traditional Islam. It has an element of modernization, for instance it deals with issues related with a modern society, address problems arises in urban living and modern day women issues, and it provides guidance for the non-traditional problems faced by my occupations. It completely ignores Islamic principle of restricting laws and regulations to the individual and society rather it tries to inject geographically restricted rules in its effort to come at par with western style geographic law. It’s not a system that has evolved as result of poverty and money. It’s a reaction to modernization by those thinkers that try to find their own ways out in changing world environment and politics. Many educated people are Islamists and running their states according to their own ideology. Islamism has been evolved lately as a huge force that is responsible for running countries like Iran, Sudan and Afghanistan. In Algeria, Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, and Palestine they exists as the strong opposition force. Though its been observed that Islamists are not in majority but even if they consists of minority it’s a very active one. The countries where they have establishments they are very successful and they not only run their own territories but they also interfere in their neighborhood and participate in overall world politics. Its been feared that if they grow their powers they will be responsible for contraction of economic stability, women oppression world wide, human right violation, terrorism and arms race. The ideas presented by Islamists belonging to different countries differ in ideologies and they are very difficult to predict. All Muslims are all well aware that they were the superior military and cultural force in the world for centuries, and the reversed situation in the modern ages hurts the pride of Muslims. As many Muslim countries have tried to copy both the capitalist system, and others the socialist system, and all have seen little but marginal success, Islamists are working for re-establishing what the promote as a â€Å"third alternative†; a political system that they claim is similar to the one which once made unknown tribes grow into becoming lords of empires in a few decades. But in order to create such a society, the Islamists are not rejecting modern technology, and are very concerned about implement this on a grand scale in an Islamist society. And because of the technology, the Islamists believe that the coming Islamist society will be an even better society than the one of the Golden Age. (Islamism, 2008) Even if what Islamists are trying is to bring the Golden period of Muslims back they are overlooking the fact that being intolerant, conservative and violent is something that was even practiced by Muslim rulers of history who ruled the world. A liberal Islam that encourages peace and harmony has always been the pride of a Muslim. Islam in its fundamental teachings promotes tolerance and love. Islamists have originated from people having moderate background living in cities. Mostly youngsters have are its prime followers. They don’t consider themselves to be the revolutionaries rather they say they are bringing the lost values back to the culture and society. Islamism condemns the economic system that world follows and suggests the Islamic economic system where interest rates should be replaced by investments made on profit and loss basis. When it comes to women they have contradicting views leading from conservatives to liberal. Sometimes they encourage women to work outside and sometimes they advocate women taking care of their families as their prime concern. The Islamist ideology could in no way support democracy, dictatorship is what they profess. A leader is responsible for listening to people’s problems and solving them accordingly. The Islamists have started to adopt a violent approach towards addressing different issues and demands for almost last two decades and are considered responsible for many destructive activities killing thousands of people worldwide. Nowadays, Islamists have been feared as a long term threat as there are growing powers day by day with more and more young people joining their force.